Sunday, May 31, 2009
Traditional clogs may have a workman like past with only a brief flirtation with high fashion but for many they remain a sexy shoe appreciated by both males and females. There are several societies devoted to the appreciation of clogs (cloggies) . From the available literature it seems many admirers are attracted to the footwear because they have seen someone of the opposite sex wearing them. This may suggest an initial attraction is the idea of uni-sex dressing. Terms like "feeling sexy", "appearing attractive to others", or "exuding power in stature" appear popular reasons for wearing clogs. Most males consider clogs as mainstream fashion for females but cheeky and avante garde for men. Many associated shoes with the wearer indicating men pay particular attention to their partner's attire. Some cloggies love the sound they make and others revel in the different materials they are made from. Most wearers insist it is the comfort of the style which draws them to clogs. "Dipping " describes the action of feet sliding in and out of clogs. This habit is reportedly much appreciated by foot partialists and fetishists, alike.
The history of clogs is long and honourable one. Starting life as overshoes or galoshes the evergreen footwear has been part of the evolution of the modern exercise sandal and platform shoe. The shoe type has been associated with poverty and initiatives to promote wearing clogs have always met with disappointment. Perhaps because it is the shoe of ordinary people its many names are onomatopoeic. The wooden shoe does however have many admirers.
A common misconception relates to the etymology of "sabotage" and how it relates to clogs (or sabatage). A popular misunderstanding is Luddites threw their wooden shoes (or sabots) into the machines to break them up. Hence. they sabotaged the machinery. However, Sabot in French not only refers to wooden clogs but also railway sleepers and in all probability disgruntled French workers in 1912 cut the railway tracks and used the sabots (sleepers) to destroy industrial equipment.
Friday, May 22, 2009
Wooden clogs have rarely ever been fashionable despite their comfort. Always associated with the working class, even after the French Revolution, when the sabot was taken as national dress of the Citizens of France, the costume was later changed to leather shoes. Wooden shoes remain popular throughout the Nordic countries and are worn by both men and women, yet only fleetingly make it to the fashionable catwalks of New York, Rome and Paris.
During the Second World War shortages in Europe meant leather was no longer available for boots and shoes. Instead governments encouraged people to turn to wooden soled shoes as a practical solution. Although fashion magazines patriotically photographed their top models wearing them it failed to persuade others to follow suit. By then most people associated clogs with working-class poverty and were less inclined to adopt them as a fashionable clothing. Even when the middle classes were eventually forced to wear clogs it was very much under duress.
In Occupied Countries some black marketeers were reported to wear clogs which had shoe prints going the opposite way. This was thought to be an attempt to confuse authorities trying to follow them. Black marketeer’s clogs were also reputed to contain secret compartments to hide clandestine contraband and or information.
The hey day for clogs as fashionable shoes came briefly in the 1970s when the supergroup Abba were popular. Although the group are better known for their platform boots they were also photographed many times wearing wooden clogs. A popular line of fashion clogs followed which had the ABBA logo stamped on the outer side of the soles.
Actor and singer Adam Faith loved wearing clogs especially in his most famous television role of Cockney larrikin, ‘Budgie’ Bird in Budgie.
Another clog devotees is Brian May (Queen): and Whoopi Goldberg was seen wearing them in several of her movies including Made in America.
Sunday, May 17, 2009
Clog dancing became very popular in Victorian times among the working class people in the North of England. The hardwearing wood against the cobbled streets allowed the dancer to create rhythm by tapping with the toes and heels. To make the clog lighter the uppers were cut lower at the ankle and the soles made from ash wood.
Dancers required to be nimble because the steps were complex. Solo dancers danced on a slab of hardwearing wood that made a ringing sound. Amateur dancers added drama to their performance by using metal tags, nailed to their soles, which caused sparks to appear. Clog dancing was mainly a male preserve with troops of male clog dancers found all over the North of England. Gradually however female clog dancers became very popular in music halls.
One of the most famous professional clog dancing troupe were J.W. Jackson's Eight Lancashire lads. A young Charlie Chaplain joined the troupe in 1896 and was paid one pound sterling per week plus his keep.
Clog dancing was introduced to US, towards the end of the nineteenth century, where upon it was quickly transformed into tap dancing. The mania swept from coast to coast. At first the tap shoe was a modified clog but later these were replaced with tap shoes with metal jingles. Initially tap dancing was a male preserve but soon became popular with women and chorus lines.
The girls wore special shoes known as Mary Janes, kept on with ankle straps fasten with a buckle or button. The shoes were often split clogs with half a sole and the heel in wood. To emphasise the sound some shoes had jingles attached to the shank. When the heels hit the floor they made a sound like two coins struck together.
Clog dancing still can be seen at traditional folk festivals and dance exhibitions all over the world.
Sunday, May 10, 2009
Clogs incorporate many styles from slip-ons to lacing. Blutcher and Derby style lacing clogs are especially popular and well-known companies continue to make them. These include the long established Swedish firm Troentorptoffel who produce clogs in Bastad (pronounced bow-stodd). Mia Clogs and Olaf Daughters (now closed) were Swedish producers of popular lines throughout the 60s, 70s, and 80s. Berkemann is a well-known German company and make orthopaedic clogs; Danish clog makers, Dansko and Sanita still produce quality clogs.
The successful secret of all shoes is the tread line across the ball of the foot which results when the heel height and toe spring are matched. The rigid lever of the shoe allows the foot to pivot against the ground during stance phase and propel effortlessly forward. Clogs shaped to meet the contours of the sole of the foot further reduce peak pressures across the area and give the shoe added comfort.
The same principal was used with exercise sandals, popularised by Dr Scholl in the sixties and seventies.
Critics of clogs frequently dismiss them as improper footwear for general wear on the basis they do not provide adequate support to the foot during locomotion. Provided clogs fit with the tread line and ball of the foot in close approximation, then the shoes provide the same functional support as any other. For those navigating reasonably flat surfaces and at a leisurely pace clogs provide adequate protection for most active people.
There is a Conformite Europeenne (CE) classification for the Dutch clog. This was awarded in 1997 when the Netherlands organisation for Applied Scientific Research published safety requirement, results. According to CE regulations clogs must be able to withstand temperatures of -20 degrees C to 150 degrees C without degrading; they should support peak pressures of 75kg and water should not destroy the soles. In the original tests pressure of 400kg on the instep and 750 kg on the nose of the clog failed to make an impression, and lastly the clog endured the fall of a blunt axe of 20kg from a height of 50 cm. people. The following is a list of UK clog makers taken in good faith from the Morris Federation home page.
Time to put my feet up! Clog-maker who runs father-and-son business finally closes the doors after 65 years making wooden shoes
History of Walkley Clogs
Thursday, May 7, 2009
By the 14th century poulaines (long toes shoes) were protected by wooden overshoes called pattens. These safeguarded the delicate materials preventing mud and water from destroying the materials they were made from.
In Spain during the Spanish Renaissance the pantoffle, a cross between the wooden soled clog and the patten overshoe, became popular. The wedged mule footwear consisted of a wooden sole with a soft leather or fabric upper. Pantoffles were popular and worn by the women of the court usually in platform style. The pantoffle crossed over into mainstream fashion more readily than the traditional wooden clog which remained very much footwear of the peasantry.
By the 16th century pattens were regularly advertised in the London Gazette and popular with both sexes. By the 17th century many references to pattens were included in popular literature. In his diary, Samuel Pepys complained in 1660 about the poor workmanship of his wife's pattens.
In 1694 Queen Mary II was known to have a collection of satin pantofles with gold and silver lacing.
In Jane Austen’s novel, “Northanger Abbey,” the character Catherine Morland records on her trip to the abbey that some girls wearing pattens stopped to curtsey.
In Charles Dickens’ novel, The cricket on the health, Mrs Mary Perrybingle was described as 'clicking over the wet stones in a pair of pattens.”
The early settlers to Brisbane (circa 1824) were known to embark from their ship wearing fashionable small patten overshoes to protect their shoes.
Monday, May 4, 2009
Clogs or wooden shoes have a long social history which has association with shoes of the peasantry. Cheap, durable and made from available wood, clogs were commonplace from Scandinavia to France and Northern England. The all wooden shoe was made from a single block of wood and were called different names in different countries e.g. Klomp (Netherlands), Klompen (German) and Sabots (France).
The choice of wood was important and those most favoured were woods which would not split. Alder, birch, sycamore, willow or beech were commonly used. Wooden clogs were worn either with no embellishment or with a thick straw bed used to pad against the rigidity of the wood.
In Europe, itinerant craftsmen, known as bodgers, prepared the wood for clogs by roughly shaping the soles. These were stacked in pyramids to allow air to circulate ensuring a natural and even drying. One of the essentials of a good pair of clogs was to pair them from the beginning so the wood would shrink together.
The first clog maker’s guild was formed in Netherlands in 1570 and the first English clog making guild came much later in the 1600s. Clogs had a brief flirtation as stylish shoes for the middle class but was soon forsaken and condemned to be the footwear of the worker.
By 1792, Citizens of the Revolution wore proletarian costume, which included sabots. Lithuanian peasants from the end of the 18th century wore wooden clogs to work in the fields.
Clogs were popular with mill workers in the North of England during the nineteenth century and worn up until the Second World War. On Sundays or festive occasions, the custom was to replace the clogs with leather shoes sporting a silver buckle. The custom of "Sunday Best" still exists in modern society.
Clogs were worn by both sexes and sometimes varnished black with a coloured pattern or the initials of the wearer included in the design.
A Dutch courting custom was for the young man to present a pair of hand carved and decorated clogs to his fiancé.
George Beau Brummell (1778-1840) was an outspoken critic of clogs and according to a biographer publicly condemned them. In private the bella figure occasionally wore a pair of clogs.
The design of Swedish clogs differs from the shoe type traditionally seen elsewhere. It consists of a backless shoe with a wooden sole. This design is closest to the older patten style and ironically remains the most popular design of modern clogs.
The traditional wooden clog is still worn on ceremonial occasions and at traditional dancing events but sadly the number of craftsmen able to make clogs has significantly reduced.
Saturday, May 2, 2009
Although light sandals carved from smooth wood were discovered in the tombs of ancient Egyptians it is generally thought the Greeks then the Etruscan used pattens or clogs. Wooden shoes were exquisitely carved and worn high (platform style) to keep the feet dry. Some had sandal like straps whilst others had woven sheaths to cover the forefoot.
The wooden shoes were ornately decorated and sometimes included inlaid mother of pearl and silver. The wooden shoes were commonly used in bath houses and Indian and Persian clogs (knob sandals) were held next to the foot with a toe grip, similar to sandals.
Wood platform sandals were worn by the harem women and the unique sound of the wooden shoe hitting the tiled floors led the shoes to be called kap-kaps The fashion was most often found in the coastal areas of Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt, from the Nile to the Euphrates. The origins of kap-kaps remains clouded but most likely these were associated with ceremonial dress before they became a general fashion.
According to Rossi (2000) at Eastern weddings knobs on women’s sandals were connected by a small chain which required the bride to take small mincing steps, signifying the bride’s sub-servience to her husband.
Overshoes made from wood (pattens) were also know in Roman Times and worn by people living in the Ardennes region (Belgium and Luxembourg and parts of France). At the same time the French region of Ardenne was inhabited by the Gauls and the wooden overshoe became known as "galoche" which later evolved into galoshes. Wooden pattens were serviceable, hardwearing and provided protection from the wet ground. Romans wore wooden clogs in the hot baths and these were referred to as "Tyrrhenian sandals."
Wood was also used to make footwear in Japan where young girls went to the temple wearing wooden clogs or getas. These were platform wooden shoes often 3-4 inches from the ground and were worn with tabi, a special sock. The Geta were made from nezuko wood because it was waterproof, lightweight and hardwearing. Reference to clogs was common place in the songs, poems and novels of the Meiji period at the turn of this century.
For centuries Samuari warriors wore geta and zori sandals made from woven straw or wood.